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    八年級數學組開展了數學文化閱讀題研究活動

    時間:2019年06月21日 點擊:

        對于研究和學習數學多年的學生們,相信會有過這樣的疑惑:“數學中那么多著名的定理和猜想,為什么大多都是以外國人名字命名的?難道中國古代數學落后其他國家嗎?”事實上,恰恰相反,中國古代數學取得了輝煌的成就,14世紀以前一直都是世界上數學最為發達的國家。除了眾所周知的發現勾股定理,計算出圓周率小數點后7位精確值(祖沖之,南北朝),楊輝三角等,還有很多世界歷史有名的數學著作:《周髀算經》(西漢),《九章算術》(西漢),《四元玉鑒》(元)。

        本次活動,主要從歷史上人們研究具體數學的問題和方法中,提取一些實例與實際問題,在感受人類智慧光芒的同時,也來看看我們學生的水平如何。

        問題1:我國古代有這樣一道數學問題:“枯木一根直立地上,高二丈周三尺,有葛藤自根纏繞而上,五周而達其頂,問葛藤之長幾何?,題意是:如圖所示,把枯木看作一個圓柱體,因一丈是十尺,則該圓柱的高為20尺,底面周長為3尺,有葛藤自點A處纏繞而上,繞五周后其末端恰好到達點B處,B在A的正上方.則問題中葛藤的最短長度是多少尺?

        問題2:《九章算術》的“盈不足篇”里有一個很有意思的老鼠打洞問題。原文這么說的:

        今有垣厚十尺,兩鼠對穿。大鼠日一尺,小鼠亦一尺。大鼠日自倍,小鼠日自半。問:何日相逢?各穿幾何?這道題的意思就是說:

    有一堵十尺厚的墻,兩只老鼠從兩邊向中間打洞。大老鼠第一天打一尺,小老鼠也是一尺。大老鼠每天的打洞進度是前一天的一倍,小老鼠每天的進度是前一天的一半。問它們幾天可以相逢,相逢時各打了多少。

        即使活動后,同學們的討論性質依然很濃,不斷交流對問題的看法。

        通過活動的準備與施行總結,學生對于數學有了新的感官認識的同時,也對理性思維,勇于探索、質疑反思等核心素養的具體方面實現了提升與鍛煉。通過活動中對學生的觀察,推送狀態表現最佳的兩位學生:伍岳平、鄧睿海參加“昌平區第三屆初二學生數學文化閱讀題展示”活動,兩名學生分別獲得了一、二等獎。總結反思本次活動,最重要的經驗既是從學生特點出發,結合回天地區學生的知識面比較廣、思考探索意識比較強等方面特征,給予學生發揮與展示的空間,實現了教育促進學生自我的發展,滿足學生教育需求多樣性的實際需求,這樣才符合新時代人才教育的大目標。通過對以往活動經驗的積累、反思總結,為辦好下一次活動打好基礎,做好助力,不斷為提升回天地區的教育實力做出學科教師的貢獻。

    撰稿人、攝影人:彭帥

    八年級組

    2019.6.21

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